EnBoo Self-Study Guide

Speaking (Coherence)

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If there is one thing kids love to do is to make fun of one another, and, more often than not, the target of these mockeries ends up being someone’s body or physique, a phenomenon that we now know as…


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Coherence means the ability to talk with normal levels of continuity, linking ideas and organizing thoughts properly. 

You need to work on coherence if:

  • You have trouble organizing your thoughts when speaking 
  • You over-use certain linking words and phrases
  • You use connecting words but not always appropriately

How To Improve Coherence When Speaking

What you need:

* If you decide to use a video or an article for this task, make sure to follow point 1 and 2 of Phase 1 of the Fluency Guide.

Phase 1 - Plan

1. Prepare what you’re going to say by writing down the main ideas. Remember to organize them from general to more specific (e.g. I have a lot of hobbies but my favorite thing to do is cooking).

2. Plan how you’re going to connect your ideas. You can look at your “Connecting Words List” to decide which phrases to use.

Phase 2 - Speak

1. Keep the “Connecting Words List” in front of you so you can choose the most appropriate ones while speaking.

2. Start speaking. Remember to follow your plan as you speak and to use the appropriate connecting phrases.

Phase 3 - Polish

1. Listen to your recording and make the necessary adjustments. Was your speech coherent? Would somebody have been able to follow what you were saying? You can even have a friend listen to it to check.

2.  Do the speaking task again making sure you take into account the changes you’ve made.


  • Start with simple connecting words and phrases and then move onto more complex ones.
  • Don’t improvise. Plan what you’re going to say.
  • Keep a “Connecting Words List” in front of you.
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